Expansion of the European Union and advancement of the process of European integration has necessitated strengthening of the protection of fundamental rights in the EU. Enactment of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU has became a milestone on this path. Provision included in the Constitutional Treaty ( which was not passed) were important elements, adopted later by the Treaty of Lisbon. Strengthening of the protection of fundamental rights is one of the most important systemic reforms of the EU that are contained in this treaty. Particularly prominent parts are giving legal personality to the Charter and creating a legal basis to admit the EU into the European Convention on Human Rights. These are fundamental topics of this book, while devoting special attention to the course discussion on this matter in Poland.