Projects are future-making tools. It is the implementation of projects that effectuates the civilization progress: both the material progress - comprising the development of commercial structures, public goods, infrastructure, new products, etc. - and the non-material one - comprising new approaches as well as social and political solutions, new organisational solutions, new services, cultural heritage, etc.
For projects to be an effective future-making tool, they need to comply with professional principles, proven in practice. One of such principles is the principle of action preparation. "An action preparation is a quality of good work, in so far as each action needs to be prepared and an improper preparation has to diminish its correctness"
The basic action preparation method is planning "a creative thinking of the future", "designing the future we desire and effective methods to make it happen". It is broadly applied in project management. The subject matter of planning in project management is diversified and comprises: functional matters, i.e. relating to the course of a project, institutional matters, relating to project design, and personal matters, relating to project participants.
This paper consists of three parts. The basic planning issues, planning in project management, with a particular focus on project scheduling, are discussed in the first part. The said part contains the characterisation of typical planning situations - planning in certainty, planning under risk and planning in uncertainty - and sets forth the planning concepts and models applicable in particular planning situations. In part two the authors characterise the most important concepts and models of project scheduling applicable in deterministic, stochastic and innovatory planning situations:
- deterministic concepts and models (CPM, MPM and others);
- stochastic concepts and models (PERT, GERT and others);
- resource-constrained concepts and models (CCPM);
- matrix-based concepts and models (GOPP/ZOPP, PCM/LFA);
- agile concepts and models (Agile, SCRUM and others);
- heuristic concepts and models (PATTERN, CPE and others).